vacuum histories
An history of vacuum technology began in northern Germany, during Summer 1657, with Guericke's experiment: 16 horses were unable to separate two evacuated copper hemispheres.


Some years before - 1643, Torricelli (1608-1647) had designed an experiment with mercury-filled-tubes: He was able to produce a vacuum and to demonstrate an instrument to measure air pressure.
Vacuum units conversion

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FAQ,s and sizing tools
   conversion of pressure units    temperature units

   evacuation time    suction capacity    leakage rate


most commonly used vacuum pumps
in industrial and process vacuum applications:

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps
- Isothermal Compression, Oil-free
- capacity up to 30.000 m³/h
- pressure down to 30mbars
Steam Ejectors
- Constant Mass Flow, no moving part
- suction flange dia. from 1cm to 3m
- Pressure down to 0.1 mbar
Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps
- capacity up to 1000 m³/h
- Pressures down to 1 mbar
Rotary Lobe (Roots Type) Vacuum Pumps
- used as boosters, oil free
- capacity up to 9000 m³/h
- pressures down to 0.1 mbar
Dry (screw or claw type) Vacuum Pumps
- capacity up to 1000 m³/h
- pressures down to 1 mbar
Condenser as a vacuum pump
- A precondenser is the most economical vacuum pump when a significant part of the load to be pumped is made of condensable vapours.


vacuum ranges
Today vacuum systems are divided into four areas based on the operating pressures being considered:
- Rough Vacuum 760 to 1 torr
- Medium Vacuum 1 to 10-3 torr
- High Vacuum 10-3 to 10-7 torr
- Ultra-high Vacuum 10-7 torr and below